Year : 2013  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 79-84

Ketamine/propofol (ketofol) versus propofol/fentanyl for induction of general anesthesia in parturients with rheumatic valvular lesions undergoing elective cesarean section

1 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Nashwa Samy ELZayyat
12 Ahmed Mokhtar Hegazy-Manial
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1687-9090.124041

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In this study, we assumed that the addition of ketamine to propofol (ketofol) would maintain cardiac stability in parturients with valvular heart without any deleterious effect on the fetus, that is no respiratory depression for the baby and hence a better Apgar score. This open-label randomized study was carried out in the High-risk Obstetric Unit, Cairo University Hospitals, in collaboration with the Anesthesia Department. The study included full-term parturients, 36-38 weeks' gestational age, 25-40 years old with severe rheumatic valvular heart lesions (mitral stenosis, mitral regurge, aortic stenosis, aortic regurge) of functional class II or III according to the New York Heart Association Classification. At the time of induction, patients were allocated randomly to one of the two study groups: group K (n = 25) received intravenous ketamine 1 mg/kg combined with propofol 1 mg/kg. Group P (n = 25) received propofol 2 mg/kg and fentanyl 2 mg/kg. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and central venous pressure were recorded at the following times:T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6. Decrease in MAP was only significant in group P (P < 0.001 at T2 and T3). The magnitude decreases in MAP. The absolute value of MAP was significantly lower in group P after induction, intubation, and skin incision. The median decrease in MAP was significantly higher in group P after induction and intubation. HR increased significantly after induction of anesthesia and after endotracheal intubation in the two groups. It reverted to near baseline values thereafter. The magnitude decreases in HR. The absolute value of HR was significantly lower in group P after intubation and skin incision. Apgar scoring was significantly better (higher) in the ketofol group at 1 and 5 min. We can conclude that a combination of ketamine and propofol seems to be an appropriate choice for anesthesia of critically ill rheumatic cardiac parturients undergoing cesarean section. It proved to be effective and hemodynamically safe for such a critical situation.

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